Types of Anesthesia
Minimal sedation – This is a drug-induced state that leaves cardiovascular functions, ventilation functions, and the airway unaffected. The patient is able to respond to verbal commands, and physical coordination and cognitive functions may be impaired.
Moderate sedation/analgesia – This is a drug-induced state that depresses consciousness, but in which the patient can purposely respond to verbal commands. Cardiovascular functions are typically maintained, ventilation is adequate, and interventions are not required to maintain the patient’s airway.
Deep sedation/analgesia – This is a drug-induced depression of consciousness. Patients can respond purposefully to painful or repeated stimulation. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained, but assistance may be needed to maintain the patient’s airway and ventilation may be inadequate.
General anesthesia – This is a drug-induced loss of consciousness. Patients are not able to respond, even to painful or repeated stimulation. Ventilation functions are often impaired, and patients require assistance in maintaining airway. Additionally, cardiovascular functions may be impaired.
Risks and complications may include but are not limited to: allergic/adverse reaction, aspiration, backache, brain damage, comas, dental injury, headache, inability to reverse the effects of anesthesia, infection, localized swelling and/or redness, muscle aches, nausea, ophthalmic (eye) injury, pain, paralysis, pneumonia, positional nerve injury, recall of sound/noise/speech by others, seizures, sore throat, wrong site for injection of anesthesia, and death.