Urination Leakage/Bladder Control
One of the most common reasons for urology surgery is because of issues involving the bladder or other structures that play a role in the flow and management of urination. If the bladder itself is the reason for urine leakage, surgery may involve shifting the position of the bladder (colposuspension).
Women with severe urinary incontinence (UI) may benefit from the insertion of a hammock that lifts and supports the urethra and neck of the bladder (sling procedure). A surgical option for men is the replacement of the urethral sphincters with artificial components (synthetic male sling).
Should the bladder be severely damaged or affected by cancer, it may be necessary to remove it (cystectomy) and create an alternative for urination flow. If urine flow is blocked, surgery might involve:
- Removal of urine crystals
- Re-positioning of the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder (ureter)
- Insertion of a ureteral stent
- Widening of or removal of part of the tube that carries urine out of the body (urethra) if urine flow is affected by recurring urethral strictures
The kidneys are responsible for processing urine, along with many other important functions. Some procedures that may be performed on one or both kidneys are fairly minor, such as surgical removal of kidney stones. If kidney cancer is suspected, a biopsy is often performed so tissues can be tested to determine if this is the case.
Should a positive diagnosis be made, surgical options include procedures that burn or freeze cancerous tissues (ablation). Severely damaged kidneys or diseased kidneys that are failing sometimes need to be partially or completely removed (partial nephrectomy/radical nephrectomy).
Male Reproductive or Structural Problems
Another reason for urologic surgery is because of issues with the male reproductive system and its various structures. In men, deformed or cancerous testicles sometimes need to be removed. Erectile dysfunction (ED) not responding well to medication and other non-surgical treatments may be corrected surgically with a penile implant.